This site is a work-in-progress. There is a massive amount to cover. I have included both male and female lines, and some go back 30 generations. Keep coming back for more.
I have numbered the generations working backwards from my own as (1)
THOMAS BUSHELL and SARAH FROST (5)
THOMAS BUSHELL was born in Deal in 1794. He was the first of three illegitimate sons Elizabeth Bushell. On 25 April she had him baptised either at the seamen’s chapel of St George in Lower Deal or the parish church of St Leonard inland at Upper Deal.
His mother was 20 years old when he was born, making her rather younger than most married mothers. It is quite likely that, either then or after his birth, she was a prostitute. We do not know how much a role his grandparents, James and Mary Bushell , played in his upbringing.
Thomas became a boatbuilder.
This was a time of hectic activity in Deal.
“From Feb. 1 st , 1793, when the Revolutionary Government declared war against England, until the time of Napoloeon’s final overthrow at Waterloo, the people of these districts lived amid constant alarms. Rumours of invasion were rife, and extraordinary measures were taken to meet the danger and to avert it, if possible... Fleet after fleet was fitted up to safeguard our shores or to make attacks on the enemy’s country. Many of these fleets assembled in the Downs, which became once more the scene of constant bustle and activity. Time after time Deal was crowded with troops awaiting embarkation on the transports in the Downs. The town was full of naval and military officers, and lodgings had to be found for these. The boatmen drove a busy trade. Not only had the men of the Royal Navy to be supplied with provisions, but in addition the boatmen had to attend to the wants of the fleets of merchantmen, often two hundred sail and more, which lay in the Downs waiting for convoy [to protect them from privateers]...
It will thus be seen that the demand of food-stuffs and other commodities became very great in Deal, so great that it was computed that during these years it was greater than that in all other East Kent towns put together. Thus the market overflowed, and it was no unusual thing to find the street from the well by St George’s Church to Five Bell Lane (Queen Street) blocked with market carts, which at times also filled the new road now called St George’s Place.”
No doubt with the boatmen so busy, there was increased work for the boatyards.
Thomas was 21 when the war ended in 1815. Much of this associated trade dried up and Deal went into decline.
She was only 9 when her father died. 15 years later, her mother died in the Poor House at the age of 46. The later part of Sarah’s childhood would have been spent in poverty, or the whole orphaned family may have gone into the workhouse. If the latter, then it is likely that Sarah was separated from her mother, and perhaps from her younger brothers, only meeting them at the weekend.
In 1812 the St Leonard’s baptismal register records the following:
1812 26 February Maria Louisa FROST illeg. daughter of Sarah
The only other Sarah Frost baptised in Deal would have been in her 40s by then, and almost certainly married. It may be someone else of that name who had moved into Deal, but it seems quite likely that this was John and Lucy’s daughter. She would have been 14 then.
If she was Maria Louisa’s mother and this was publicly known, it would have been more difficult for her to find a husband than for other young women. But seven years later on she did marry Thomas Bushell. The fact that Thomas himself came from a single parent family, with not one but three boys born out of wedlock, may have made this a happy solution for both of them.
1819 17 Jan Thomas Bushell, bachelor of this parish, and Sarah Frost, spinster of this parish, by Banns
Witnesses: Simon Marsh, Sarah Sutton
Sarah was illiterate and could only sign her name with her mark.
They set up home in Lower Street, not far from the beach. They had five daughters baptised. The register lists all baptisms in Deal under the parish church of St Leonards, but it is likely that the Bushells would have been using St George’s, a chapel of ease built a hundred years earlier to serve the boatmen of the Lower Town..
Baptisms. St Leonard’s. Deal
1819 24 Oct Mary Ann Sutton BUSHELL daughter of Thomas & Sarah, Lower Street, Boatbuilder
1821 4 Nov Caroline Elizabeth BUSHELL daughter of Thomas & Sarah, Lower Street, Boatbuilder
1824 31 Mar Sarah Elizabeth BUSHELL daughter of Thomas & Sarah, Lower Street, Boatbuilder
1827 7 Feb Eliza Ann BUSHELL d. of Thos.& Sara. Lower St. Boatbuilder
1829 30 Dec Jane Frost BUSHELL daughter of Thomas & Sarah, Lower Street, Boatbuilder.
James was born two years later.
1834 19 Feb Thomas James BUSHELL s. Thomas & Sarah. Lower St. Boat Builder
The family then moved before the birth of the last two boys.
1836 16 Dec Henry Richard BUSHELL s. Thos. & Sara. Smith’s Folly. Boatbuilder
William J. was born in the spring of 1840.
Thomas’s younger brother Henry also became a boatbuilder. There is no evidence that they owned their own business, unlike Morris Langley on the Cory side of the family. They were most probably employed in one of the several boatbuilding yards in Deal.
In the 1841 census the family were living in Georges Street. All the girls but one had left home. They had were either married or had live-in jobs elsewhere.
1841 Census. Deal. Georges St.
Thomas Bushell 45 Boatbuilder Y
Sarah Bushell 40 Y
Eliza Bushell 14 Y
James Bushell 12 Y
Thomas Bushell 7 Y
Henry Bushell 5 Y
William Bushell 17 (19?) months Y
By the 1851 census, only three boys were living at home.
1851 Census. Deal. 145 Middle Street
Bushell Thomas Head Mar 56 Boatbuilder Deal
Bushell Sarah Wife Mar 53 Deal
Bushell Thomas Son U 17 Deal
Bushell Henry Son 15 Deal
Bushell William Son 10 Deal
No occupation is given for the boys. There is no indication that any of them are at school. William grew up to be a boatman.
By 1861, Sarah had died. There is a likely registration of her death in the first quarter of 1854.
Thomas and his youngest son William moved in with his daughter Sarah Elizabeth , her husband and their young family.
1861 Census. 19 Griffin Street, Deal:
William B. Baker Head M 34 Boatman Deal
Sarah E. Baker Wife M 37 Stay Maker Deal
William J. Baker Son U 3 Scholar Deal
Eliza A. Baker Daughter U 1 Deal
Thomas Bushell Father in law W 67 Boat builder Deal
William J. Bushell Brother in law U 21 Boatman Deal
Sarah Elizabeth was a staymaker. Rope-making was Deal’s other industry.
Thomas does not appear in the 1871 census. There is a probable registration of his death in the second quarter of 1869.
By the time he was 40, their son William Bushell had become landlord of the Napier Inn on Beach Street, though he was still also a boatman. This combination of jobs was not uncommon. Their granddaughter Jane , Sarah Elizabeth ’s daughter, was at the same address, working for her uncle in the inn.
Next Generation: 4. BAKER-BUSHELL
Previous Generations: 6. BUSHELL